396 HISTORY OF PERSIA CHAP. pursuance of this object he had urged Zaman Shah to invade the Panjab. Tippu was fortunately killed at the fall of Seringapatam, in 1798, but this success did not cause Wellesley to relax his precautions towards the north, more especially as he was aware of negotiations which were being conducted with the Afghan Amir, by Vizier All of Oude and other powerful Indians, including Hindu Rajahs. To combat these dangerous intrigues the Governor-General instructed Mehdi Ali Khan, a natural- ized Persian who was acting as the Company's Resident at Bushire, "to take measures for inducing the Court of Persia to keep Shah Zaman in perpetual check (so as to preclude him from returning to India), but without any decided act of hostility." The success of this policy of inducing Persia to intervene in Afghanistan was already assured. Zaman Shah about this period had instructed his Vizier to send an envoy to Haji Ibrahim with a demand that his master should surrender Khorasan to Afghanistan. This demand naturally irritated the young Shah, who dictated a reply to the effect that it was his intention to restore the eastern boundaries of Persia to the condition which had existed under the Safavi dynasty. In other words, the independence of Afghanistan was to be swept away, Herat, Kandahar, and Kabul being all included in the Safavi Empire. Path Ali Shah held good cards, for two of Zaman Shah's brothers, Mahmud and Firuz, had taken refuge with the " Asylum of the Universe.7' In 1798 these princes were sent with a Persian force to Afghanistan ; but little was effected. In the following year Path Ali Shah took the field in person. He led an army into Khorasan to punish the governors and chiefs who had rebelled. There he received an embassy from Zaman Shah requesting him to return to Teheran ; and to this he tamely agreed, on condition that the Amir's fugitive brothers should be well received in Afghanistan. The actual result of the Persian military operations was slight, but the consequent retirement of Zaman Shah from Lahore to Peshawar, in order that he might be ready to fight if necessary, relieved the Afghan pressure on India.